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Author Guidelines

Sections of The Paper

- Title does not exceed more than 20 words
- Title uses descriptive sentences associated strongly with the content

- Title includes author’s complete name, affiliation, complete address for correspondence, telephone number, fax number, and email address

- Title should be short and unambiguous
- Title should contain the keywords
- In descriptive study, the title may include place and period of study. It depends on the essential factors, especially for a result that may not be generalizable to other location
- Placed at the top center of the page, with Sentence Case, NOT underlined or italicized



- Abstract is written under the IMRAD structure: Introduction, Methods, Results And Discussion and Conclusion
- Abstract is written in one paragraph, does not exceed 250 words, summarizes the major aspects of the entire paper in the following prescribed sequence:
  • the question(s) you investigated (or purpose), state the purpose very clearly in the last sentence of the Introduction section
  • the experimental design and methods used (Methods section)
  • the major findings including key quantitative results, or trends, along with a brief summary of your interpretations (Results And Discussion section)
  • clearly state the implications of the answers the entire research gave you, not the results of the statistical analysis (Conclusion section

- All acronyms or abbreviations in the abstract are defined when first mentioned, and the acronyms or abbreviations are written in parentheses afterward

- Abstract contains 3–5 keywords.


- Establish the context of the work being reported by discussing the relevant primary research literature (with citations) and summarizing our current understanding of the problem you are investigating;

- State the purpose of the work in the form of the hypothesis, question, or problem you investigated;

- Briefly explain your rationale and approach and, whenever possible, the possible outcomes your study can reveal.


- Describe the organism(s) used in the study.

- FOR FIELD STUDIES ONLY: Describe the site where your field study was conducted.

- FOR LABORATORY STUDIES: You need NOT report the date and location of the study UNLESS it is necessary information for someone to have who might wish to repeat your work or use the same facility.

- Describe your experimental design clearly.

- Describe the procedures for your study in sufficient detail that other scientists could repeat your work to verify your findings (as their citation)

- Describe how the data were summarized and analyzed. The information should include:

  • statistical software used
  • how the data were summarized (Means, percentage, etc.) and how you are reporting measures of variability (SD, SEM, 95% CI, etc.)
  • which data transformations were used (e.g., to correct for normal distribution or equalize variances)
  • statistical tests used concerning the particular questions, or kinds of questions, you address
  • any other numerical (e.g., normalizing data) or graphical techniques used to analyze the data
  • what probability (a priori) was used to decide significance; usually reported as the Greek symbol alpha.

- Should have references citation if needed

- Mention approval from Ethical Committee


- Objectively present your key results, without interpretation, in an orderly and logical sequence using both text and illustrative materials (Tables and Figures).

- Report your results to provide as much information as possible to the reader about the nature of differences, or directionality, or magnitude.

- Organize the results section based on the sequence of Table and Figures you'll include.

- The body of the Results section is a text-based presentation of the key findings which includes references to each of the Tables and Figures.

- Statistical test summaries (test name, p-value) are usually reported parenthetically in conjunction with the biological results they support.

  • Avoid devoting whole sentences to report a statistical outcome alone.
  • Avoid the use and over-use of the word "significant"

- Present the results of your experiment(s) in a sequence that will logically support (or provide evidence against) the hypothesis, or answer the question, stated in the Introduction.

Report negative results

- Always enter the appropriate units when reporting data or summary statistics.


- Interpret your results in light of what was already known about the subject of the investigation, and to explain our new understanding of the problem after considering your results.

- Fundamental questions to answer in Discussion section include:

  • Do your results provide answers to your testable hypotheses? If so, how do you interpret your findings?
  • Do your findings agree with what others have shown? If not, do they suggest an alternative explanation or perhaps an unforeseen design flaw in your experiment (or theirs?)
  • What is our new understanding of the problem you investigated and outlined in the Introduction?

- You must relate your work to the findings of other studies - including previous studies you may have done and those of other investigators.

- Do not introduce new results in the Discussion.


- The outcome of the statistical analysis is not a key result, but rather an analytical tool that helps us understand what our key result is.

Conclusion is the key result, the most important outcome of your work.

- Do not simply summarize the points already made in the body — instead, interpret your findings at a higher level of    abstraction.

- Make the Conclusion interesting and memorable for readers.


If in your experiment, you received any significant help in thinking up, designing, or carrying out the work, or received materials from someone who did you a favor by supplying them, you must acknowledge their assistance and the service or material provided. Although usual style requirements (e.g., 1st person, objectivity) are relaxed somewhat here, Acknowledgments are always brief and never flowery.


- The references should not dated more than past 10 years

- 80 percent of the references should come from journals with the rest comes from textbooks or others

Do not label this section "Bibliography." A bibliography contains references that you may have read but have not specifically cited in the text. Bibliography sections are found in books and other literary writing, but not scientific journal-style papers.

- The references citation is in numeric order according to the first mention in the text and to the Vancouver rules

Vancouver is a numbered referencing style commonly used in medicine and science, and consists of:

  • citations to someone else's work in the text, indicated by the use of a number
  • a sequentially numbered reference list at the end of the document providing full details of the corresponding in-text reference

It follows the rules established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, now maintained by the U.S. National Library of Medicine. It is also known as Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals.

Quick reference guide to Vancouver citing & referencing style

- General notes:

  • References are listed in numerical order, and in the same order in which they are cited in the text. The reference list appears at the end of the paper.
  • Begin your reference list on a new page and title it 'References.'
  • The reference list should include all and only those references you have cited in the text. (However, do not include unpublished items such as correspondence).
  • Use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9).
  • Abbreviate journal titles in the style used in the NLM Catalog
  • Check the reference details against the actual source - you are indicating that you have read a source when you cite it.
  • Be consistent and avoid repetition with your referencing style across the document.


  • All names of organizations, institutions, etc., are written according to their official English terms (e.g., Hasan Sadikin General Hospital. You may check on the official website of the organization/institution)
  • The results of the final layout version of every manuscript may be different with what you made with the template we provide in the .docx version, due to the different software used to create the final layout version (PJD uses Adobe® InDesign software as the layout editing software)


For technical guidance, you may refer our research template


Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  3. Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  4. The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  5. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  6. If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Copyright Notice

Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License


Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.


Author Fees

This journal charges the following author fees.

Article Publication Charge for General Authors: 1250000.00 (IDR)

Article Publication Charge for Authors from Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran: 1000000.00 (IDR)
If this paper is accepted for publication, you will be asked to pay an Article Publication Fee to cover publications costs.